Tuesday, April 3, 2012

30.03.12 tavapärane

Loeng. Kõik on kohal.



Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) teeb esimesed edukad raadiotelegraafi katsed 1895. Raadio leiutamiseni eelnes peaagu terve sajand katseid ja teooriaid elektromagnetlainete vallas. Marconi täiustab antenni ja saavutab signaali edastamise suurte vahemaade taha. Marconi asutab ka esimesed raadiotehnoloogia firmad, mis kuni 1950 on sidetehnikas tooniandvad.

1900 brasiillane Landell de Moura kannab esimesena üle inimhäält. 1904 võetakse kasutusele raadiolambiga vastuvõtja. Raadio on esialgu telegraafi ja telefoni taoline personaalse info edastamise vahend, kuigi märgatakse, et teadet kuulevad kõik, kes on saatja peale häälestatud.

1916 USA Pittsburgi raadioamatöör ja leidur Westinghouse raadiofirma insener Frank Conrad hakkas oma (lühilaine) raadiosaatjast sõpradele laskma regulaarselt (kahel päeval nädalas, kolmapäeval ja laupäeval) muusikat, uudiseid ja reklaame. Varsti kuulasid raadiot ka võõrad raadiohuvilised vastuvõtjaid ning tema raadiosaatja kuulamiseks hakati  müüma spetsiaalseid odavaid. See oli esimene ringhäälinguraadio. 1920 asutatakse Conradi raadiosaatja baasil esimene kommertsraadiojaam KDKA ning  algab USAs ringhäälinguraadiote buum, kiiresti kujuneb klassikaline raadioprogramm. Euroopas asutatakse samuti raadiojaamad 1920-ndatel, kui massiliseks saab raadio alles 1930-ndatel. Euroopas on igal riigil tavaliselt üks suur  raadiosaatja, alternatiivraadiod on enamasti keelatud. Eesti esimene ringhäälingu saade tehti 1924

Esimesed laiatarbe-vastuvõtjad olid nn detektorvastuvõtjad, mis ei vajanud vooluallikat või hiljem vajasid vaid patareisid. Hiljem lisati raadiotele võimendus ja kõlarid.

1920-ndatel hakkasid Euroopas salaja tegutsema illegaalsed piraatraadiojaamad, mida võiks tinglikult nimetada ka omamoodi kunstiväljenduseks.


1. theater because radio has killed the theater already defeated by sound drama

2. cinema because cinema is dying (a) from rancid sentimentalism of subject matter (b) from realism that involves even certain simultaneous syntheses (c) from infinite technical complications (d) from fatal banalizing collaborationism (e) from reflected brilliance inferior to the self-emitted brilliance of radio-television

3. books because the book which is guilty of having made humanity myopic implies something heavy strangled stifled fossilized and frozen (only the great freeword tableaux shall live, the only poetry that needs to be seen)


1. the space and stage necessary to theater including Futurist synthetic theater (action unfolding on a fixed and constant stage) and to cinema (actions unfolding on very rapid variable simultaneous and always realistic stages)

2. time

3. unity of action

4. dramatic character

5. the audience as self-appointed judging mass systematically hostile and servile always against the new always retrograde


1. Freedom from all point of contact with literary and artistic tradition. Any attempt to link la radia with tradition is grotesque

2. A new art that begins where theater cinema and narrative end

3. The immensification of space. No longer visible and framable the stage becomes universal and cosmic

4. The reception amplification and transfiguration of vibrations emitted by living beings living or dead spirits dramas of wordless noise-states

5. The reception amplification and transfigurahon of vibrations emitted by matter. Just as today we listen to the song of the forest and the sea so tomorrow shall we be seduced by the vibrations of a diamond or a flower

6. A pure organism of radio sensations

7. An art without time or space without yesterday or tomorrow. The possibility of receiving broadcast stations situated in various time zones and the lack of light will destroy the hours of the day and night. The reception and amplification of the light and the voices of the past with thermoionic valves will destroy time

8. The synthesis of infinite simultaneous actions

9. Human universal and cosmic art as voice with a true psychology-spirituality of the sounds of the voice and of silence

10. The characteristic life of every noise and the infinite variety of concrete/abstract and real/dreamt through the agency of a people of noises

11. Struggles of noises and of various distances that is spatial drama joined with temporal drama

12. Words in freedom. The word has gradually developed into a collaborator of mime and gesture. The word must be recharged with all its power hence an essential and totalitarian word which in Futurist theory is called word-atmosphere. Words in freedom children of the aesthetics of machines contain an orchestra of noises and noise-chords (realistic and abstract) which alone can aid the colored and plastic word in the lightning-fast representation of what is not seen. If he does not wish to resort to words in freedom the radiast must express himself in that freeword style which is already widespread in avant-garde novels and newspapers that typically swift quick synthetic simultaneous freeword style

13. Isolated word repetitions of verbs in the infinitive

14. Essential art

15. Gastronomic amorous gymnastic etc. music

16. The utilization of noises sounds chords harmonies musical or noise simultaneities of silence all with their graduations of appaggiatura crescendo and decrescendo which will become strange brushes for painting delimiting and coloring the infinite darkness of la radia by giving squareness roundness spheric in short

17. The utilization of interference between stations and of the birth and evanescence of the sounds

18. The delimitation and geometric construction of silence

19. The utilization of the various resonances of voice or sound in order to give a sense of the size of the place in which the voice is uttered.
The characterization as the silent as semisilent atmosphere that surrounds and colors a given voice sound or noise

20. The elimination of the concept or the illusion of an audience which has always had even for books a deforming and damaging influence.

1932   esimene katse teha teadlikult raadiokunsti Filippo Tommaso Marinetti’s sintesi radiofoniche. – 5 raadiokompositsiooni, mis koosnesid müraelementidest, mis pidid inimesi otse ärritama, ilma mõtlemiseta (idee laenatud dramaturg Antoine Artaud`lt).

1. Marinetti‟s first sintesi radiofonica, An Acoustical Landscape, is made of three blocks of sounds: a fire‟s crackling, a water‟s lapping, and the whistle of a blackbird:

“An Acoustical Landscape

The whistle of a blackbird envious of the fire‟s crackle ended up putting out the water‟s

whispery gossip

10 seconds of lapping.

1 second of crackling.

8 seconds of lapping.

1 second of crackling.

5 seconds of lapping.

1 second of crackling.

19 seconds of lapping.

1 second of crackling.

25 seconds of lapping.

1 second of crackling.

35 seconds of lapping.

6 seconds of blackbird whistling.

(dramaatiliste pausidega)

2. “Drama of distances

11 seconds a military march in Rome.

11 seconds a tango being danced in Santos.

11 seconds of Japanese religious music being played in Tokyo.

11 seconds of a lively rustic dance in the Varese countryside.

11 seconds of a boxing match in New York.

11 seconds of street noise in Milan.

11 seconds of a Neapolitan love song sung in the Copacabana Hotel in Rio de



3. “Silences speak among themselves

15 seconds of pure silence.

A flute‟s do re mi.

8 seconds of pure silence.

A flute‟s do re mi.

29 seconds of pure silence.

A piano‟s sol.

A trumpet‟s do.

40 seconds of pure silence.

A trumpet‟s do.

An infant‟s wah wah.

11 seconds of pure silence.

An eleven year old girl‟s stupefied ooooh

4. Battle of Rhythms

A prudent and patient slowness expressed by means of the tap tap tap of water drops

first cut off then killed off by

A flying elasticity composed of arpeggios of piano notes first cut off then killed off


A loud ringing of an electric doorbell first cut off and then killed off by

A three minute long silence first cut off and then killed off by

A toiling key in lock tat rum ta trac followed by

A one minute long silence.

5. “Building a Silence

1) Build a wall on the left with a drum roll (one half minute)

2) Build a wall on the right with trumpeting – shouting – auto tram a squealing of

capital (one half minute)

3) Build a floor with the gurgling of water in pipes (one half minute)

4) Build a ceiling terrace with the chip chip srschip of sparrows and swallows (20



Magnetiline helisalvestus oli leiutatud juba 19. sajandil, kuid raadiotöös a vähem mujal  laialt kasutatavaks muutus alles 1930.ndatel.

1940ndatel hakkas raadioinsener ja helikunstnik Pierre Schaeffer katsetama helisalvestustega ja nimetas selle musique concrete

Schaeffer leiutas magnetofoni baasil sampleri eelkäijad fonogeeni ja morlofoni.


1925 John Logie Baird näitab Londonis mehhaanilist televisioonisüsteemi.

1935 vene päritolu USA firma RCA insener Vladimir Zworykin  arendab ungarlase Kálmán Tihanyi patentide abil täiselektroonilise televisiooni. Euroopas arendavad süsteemi edasi Marconi firma ja  Saksamaa insenerid.

TV jääb peale II maailmasõda riigi monopoliks kogu maailmas. Kunsti tehti vähe aga vahel näidati mõjuvalt moodsat kunsti ,


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